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Lesson 10.6 Typeforms

Symbols

boldface symbol
⠘⠆

boldface word
⠘⠂

boldface terminator
⠘⠄

underline symbol
⠸⠆

underline word
⠸⠂

underline terminator
⠸⠄

Explanation

In mathematics, algebraic letters in print are often italicized. This distinction is not necessary to show in braille unless the change in typeface is used to convey a distinct mathematical meaning. Boldface type is used to distinguish letters of matrices and vectors, and this distinction is retained in braille when it is the only method used to identify them.

Braille has typeform indicators for symbol, word, and passage. This lesson addresses the use of the symbol and word indicators. Typeform indicators are formed with two cells. The prefix cell indicates typeface form, while the root cell indicates the extent of the typeform symbol, word, or passage. The boldface prefix is dots four five and the underline prefix is dots four five six. The second cell or root is dots two three for symbol and dot two for word. The terminator is formed with the appropriate prefix and a dot three root. Complete information on typeform indicators and can be found in §9 of the Rules of Unified English Braille, 2013.

When a digit or digits within a numeral are underlined or displayed in boldface type, the appropriate typeface indicator is used. The typeface indicator turns off numeric mode, therefore the numeric indicator must be repeated with any numeral that appears after the indicator.

In Example 1 the italicized letters of an algebraic expression are not retained in braille. The typeform indicator is not used.

Example 1

3x+y=25 with x and y in italics
⠼⠉⠭⠐⠖⠽⠀⠐⠶⠀⠼⠃⠑

Example 2 references letters of a vector. Since boldface type is the only method used to identify the vectors, boldface is used in braille.

Example 2

c=a+b with variables in bold
⠘⠆⠰⠉⠀⠐⠶⠀⠘⠆⠁⠐⠖⠘⠆⠃

In Examples 3 through 6, individual digits of a numeral have a change in typeface (bold or underline). This distinction is necessary for the reader, therefore the change is represented in braille with the appropriate indicators. The indicator turns off numeric mode.

Example 3

89435 with 4 in bold
⠼⠓⠊⠘⠆⠼⠙⠉⠑

Example 4

89435 with 435 in bold
⠼⠓⠊⠘⠂⠼⠙⠉⠑

Example 5

89435 with 8 in bold
⠘⠆⠼⠓⠊⠙⠉⠑

Example 6

Give the place value of the underlined digits.
89435 with 435 underlined
64201 with 42 underlined
⠠⠛⠊⠧⠑⠀⠮⠀⠏⠇⠁⠉⠑⠀⠧⠁⠇⠥⠑⠀⠷⠀⠮⠀⠐⠥⠇⠔⠫⠀⠙⠊⠛⠊⠞⠎⠲
⠼⠓⠊⠸⠂⠼⠙⠉⠑
⠼⠋⠸⠂⠼⠙⠃⠸⠄⠼⠚⠁

The integral in Example 7 uses boldface to distinguish the function name from the variables in the expression. Follow rules for writing function names by ignoring the bold and spacing the lower-case letter from the function name.

Example 7

Integral of open parenthesis tan x plus cot x close parenthesis dx with tan and cot in bold
⠰⠰⠮⠐⠣⠞⠁⠝⠀⠭⠐⠖⠉⠕⠞⠀⠭⠐⠜⠙⠭

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