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Lesson 1.2: Punctuation

Symbols

comma

colon

hyphen

Explanation

A general principle of UEB is that each print symbol has one and only one braille equivalent. UEB follows this principle by using the same physical symbol regardless of context (literary or technical). Punctuation symbols that appear within mathematical expressions in print are the same physical symbols used within literary contexts. Punctuation follows print for order and spacing.

Comma

A comma is used as a separator in long numerals or to denote boundaries in a list. The comma is dot two. Follow print for use and spacing of the comma. The comma continues numeric mode when it appears within a long numeral therefore the numeric indicator is not repeated when a comma is immediately followed by a digit. When a comma is followed by a space as in a list, the numeric indicator must be used before the following digit because the space terminates numeric mode.

Example 1

3,500
⠼⠉⠂⠑⠚⠚

Example 2

13, 15, 17
⠼⠁⠉⠂⠀⠼⠁⠑⠂⠀⠼⠁⠛

Colon

The colon is formed with dots two five. The colon is used when writing time to separate hours and minutes. It is also used with ratios, to be covered in a later lesson. The colon turns off numeric mode therefore the numeric indicator must be inserted before any digit that follows the colon.

Example 3

7:30
⠼⠛⠒⠼⠉⠚

Example 4

5:15
⠼⠑⠒⠼⠁⠑

Hyphen

The hyphen is formed with dots three six. The hyphen is commonly used to join or connect two related items. In print, a hyphen may be indistinguishable from the minus sign however they are two different symbols in braille. The minus sign in print is usually slightly longer than a hyphen.

The hyphen turns off numeric mode. The numeric indicator must be used with a numeral that follows a hyphen.

Example 5

6-10
⠼⠋⠤⠼⠁⠚

Example 6

1-2
⠼⠁⠤⠼⠃

Punctuation that appears next to a numeral is brailled as it is shown in print.

Example 7

Tim has 4; Bob has 6; Jo has 2.
⠠⠞⠊⠍⠀⠓⠁⠎⠀⠼⠙⠆⠀⠠⠃⠕⠃⠀⠓⠁⠎⠀⠼⠋⠆⠀⠠⠚⠕⠀⠓⠁⠎⠀⠼⠃⠲

Example 8

Count by 5's
⠠⠉⠨⠞⠀⠃⠽⠀⠼⠑⠄⠎⠲

Numeric mode is turned off by a space and any punctuation other than a comma or period. The numeric indicator must be used with any numeral that immediately follows a punctuation symbol other than the comma or period.

Example 9

The bus arrives between 4:15-4:30.
⠠⠮⠀⠃⠥⠎⠀⠜⠗⠊⠧⠑⠎⠀⠆⠞⠀⠼⠙⠒⠼⠁⠑⠤⠼⠙⠒⠼⠉⠚⠲

Example 10

The boys won 6-2!
⠠⠮⠀⠃⠕⠽⠎⠀⠺⠕⠝⠀⠼⠋⠤⠼⠃⠖

Example 11

We collected 3,000-4,000 pennies.
⠠⠺⠑⠀⠉⠕⠇⠇⠑⠉⠞⠫⠀⠼⠉⠂⠚⠚⠚⠤⠼⠙⠂⠚⠚⠚⠀⠏⠢⠝⠊⠑⠎⠲

Example 12

How many minutes between 2:15 and 3:40?
⠠⠓⠪⠀⠸⠍⠀⠍⠔⠥⠞⠑⠎⠀⠆⠞⠀⠼⠃⠒⠼⠁⠑⠀⠯⠀⠼⠉⠒⠼⠙⠚⠦

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